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Table 2 Sample characteristics by nation

From: The Optimism–Pessimism Short Scale–2 (SOP2): a comprehensive validation of the English-language adaptation

  United Kingdom Germany
N 468 474
Mean age in years (SD) [Range] 45.2 (14.5) [18–69] 44.0 (14.4) [18–69]
Proportion of women (%) 52.6 50.0
Educational level (%)
 Low: never went to school, Skills for Life/1–4 GCSEs A*–C or equivalent 34.8 33.5
 Intermediate: 5 or more GCSEs A*–C/vocational GCSE/GNVQ intermediate or equivalent 32.1 33.8
 High: 2 or more A-levels or equivalent 33.1 32.7
  1. Note. The equivalent German educational levels were as follows (from low to high): ohne Bildungsabschluss/Hauptschulabschluss [no educational qualification/basic school-leaving qualification], Mittlere Reife [intermediate school-leaving qualification], and Fachhochschulreife/Abitur [entrance qualification for a university of applied sciences/general higher education entrance qualification].