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Table 3 Short-scale measures used in the survey correlated with SOP2

From: The Optimism–Pessimism Short Scale–2 (SOP2): a comprehensive validation of the English-language adaptation

Construct Short scale measure Subdimensions No. of items Reliability estimates
Big Five personality traits Extra-short form of the Big Five Inventory–2 (BFI-2-XS; English-language version: Soto & John, 2017; German-language version: (Rammstedt et al., 2020) Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Openness 15 (3 items per dimension) UK sample: between α = .44 (Openness) and α = .79 (Emotional Stability), German sample: between α = .37 (Agreeableness) and α = .68 (Emotional Stability)
Risk proneness Risk Proneness Short Scale (R-1; Nießen, Groskurth, et al., 2020b)/Kurzskala zur Erfassung der Risikobereitschaft (Beierlein, Kovaleva, Kemper, & Rammstedt, 2015) - 1 rtt = .76 (English-language version), rtt = .83 (German-language version; Nießen, Groskurth, et al., 2020b)
General self-efficacy General Self-Efficacy Short Scale–3 (GSE-3; Doll et al., 2021)/Allgemeine Selbstwirksamkeit Kurzskala (ASKU; Beierlein, Kovaleva, et al., 2014) - 3 ω = .92 (English-language version), ω = .86 (German-language version; Doll et al., 2021)
Self-esteem Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; English-language version: Rosenberg, 2014; German-language version: von Collani & Herzberg, 2003) - 10 UK sample: α = .90, German sample: α = .89
Locus of control Internal–External Locus of Control Short Scale–4 (IE-4; Nießen et al., 2021)/Internale–Externale-Kontrollüberzeugung–4 (Kovaleva et al., 2014) Internal locus of control, external locus of control 4 (2 items per dimension) ω = .59–.63 (English-language version), ω = .59–.67 (German-language version; Nießen et al., 2021)
Interpersonal trust Interpersonal Trust Short Scale (KUSIV3; Nießen, Beierlein, et al., 2020)/Kurzskala Interpersonelles Vertrauen (Beierlein, Kemper, et al., 2014a) - 3 ω = .69 (English-language version), ω = .75 (German-language version; Nießen, Beierlein, et al., 2020)
Political efficacy Political Efficacy Short Scale (PESS; Groskurth et al., 2021)/Political Efficacy Kurzskala (PEKS; Beierlein, Kemper, et al., 2014b) Internal political efficacy, external political efficacy 4 (2 items per dimension) ω = .84–.88 (English-language version), ω = .86 (German-language version; Groskurth et al., 2021)
Life satisfaction General Life Satisfaction Short Scale (L-1; Nießen, Groskurth, et al., 2020a)/Kurzskala zur Erfassung der Allgemeinen Lebenszufriedenheit (Beierlein, Kovaleva, László, et al., 2015) - 1 rtt = .82 (English-language version), rtt = .71 (German-language version; Nießen, Groskurth, et al., 2020a)
Health Question measuring self-reported general health used in the European Social Survey (ESS; English-language version: ESS, 2016a; German-language version: ESS, 2016b) - 1 -
Socially desirable responding Social Desirability–Gamma Short Scale (KSE-G; Nießen et al., 2019)/Soziale Erwünschtheit–Gamma (Kemper, Beierlein, Bensch, et al., 2014) Exaggerating positive qualities, minimizing negative qualities 6 (3 items per dimension) ω = .67–.79 (English-language version), ω = .69–.70 (German-language version; Nießen et al., 2019)