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Table 5 Correlations of SOP2 with validation measures and sociodemographic characteristics, by nation

From: The Optimism–Pessimism Short Scale–2 (SOP2): a comprehensive validation of the English-language adaptation

  UK DE
r 95% CI r 95% CI
Big Five
 Extraversion .38 [.30, .45] .24 [.15, .32]
 Agreeableness .27 [.19, .36] .28 [.19, .36]
 Conscientiousness .19 [.10, .28] .13 [.04, .21]
 Emotional Stability .55 [.48, .61] .55 [.49, .61]
 Openness .20 [.12, .29] .16 [.07, .24]
Risk proneness .20 [.11, .28] .21 [.12, .30]
General self-efficacy .31 [.22, .39] .36 [.28, .43]
Self-esteem .56 [.50, .62] .57 [.50, .62]
Locus of control
 Internal .27 [.18, .35] .28 [.20, .36]
 External −.18 [−.27, −.09] −.39 [−.47, −.31]
Interpersonal trust .42 [.35, .49] .43 [.35, .50]
Political efficacy
 Internal .20 [.11, .28] .22 [.13, .30]
 External .13 [.04, .22] .13 [.04, .21]
Life satisfaction .53 [.46, .59] .51 [.44, .58]
Health .32 [.24, .40] .34 [.25, .41]
Social desirability
 Exaggerating positive qualities .27 [.19, .35] .23 [.14, .31]
 Minimizing negative qualities .08 [−.01, .17] .14 [.05, .23]
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Employed (= reference category)
  Unemployed −.22 [−.32, −.12] −.14 [−.25, −.03]
  Self-employed −.05 [−.16, .07] .00 [−.11, .12]
  Retired/homemaker −.06 [−.16, .04] −.07 [−.16, .03]
  Pupil/student/apprentice/intern −.07 [− .19, .04] −.08 [−.18, .03]
 Income .25 [.16, .33] .21 [.12, .29]
 Educational level .11 [.02, .20] .08 [−.01, .17]
 Age .06 [−.03, .15] .13 [.04, .21]
 Gender −.06 [−.15, .03] .01 [−.08, .10]
  1. Note. UK = United Kingdom (N = 468, NEmployment status = 450, NIncome = 431), DE = Germany (N = 474, NSelf-esteem = 473, NEmployment status = 462, NIncome = 449), CI = confidence interval. Health: very bad (1) – very good (5). Gender: 1 = male, 2 = female. Coefficients with r ≥ |.20| are in bold type