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Table 1 Items measuring public knowledge about nuclear weapons, 2018

From: Measuring public knowledge on nuclear weapons in the post-Cold War: dimensionality and measurement invariance across eight European countries

Item wording Item format Response options Implementation
Some countries around the world have built nuclear weapons. Of the countries listed below, which, if any, do you believe to be currently in possession of nuclear weapons? Please select all that apply. Multiple choice, multiple USA
India
Argentina
Russia
Pakistan
South Africa
France
North Korea
Australia
UK
Israel
Belarus
China
Iran
Egypt
None of these
Countries presented in random order; “none of these” option fixed at bottom of the list
To the best of your knowledge, how many nuclear weapons are there in the world today, approximately? If you are not sure, give your best guess. Single response, multiple choice < 500
1500
7500
15,000
50,000
100,000 or more
Response options in fixed order, ordered from lowest to highest value
How many nuclear weapons are there in your country? If you are not sure, give your best guess. Slider, open response 0–100,000
(country specific)
Open-ended question; “I don’t know” option offered
As far as you know, which of the following, if any, are the likely effects of a nuclear weapon explosion? Please select all that apply. Multiple response, multiple choice Radiation
Genetic mutations
Fire
Erosion
A blast
Hurricanes
Loss of fertility
Famine
None of these
Effects presented in random order; “none of these” fixed at bottom of the list.
To the best of your knowledge, has any country ever given up a nuclear weapons program? Please select one option. Binary, close-ended Yes
No
Fixed order
Nuclear weapons were used during the Second World War. Identify which city or cities on which they were dropped. Please select all that apply. Multiple response, multiple choice Hiroshima
Nagasaki
Tokyo
Kyoto
Seoul
Pyongyang
I do not know
Cities presented in random order; “none of these” fixed at bottom of the list
How many people died as a result of the use of nuclear weapons during the Second World War, approximately? Please select one option. Single response, multiple choice < 5000
10,000–25,000
70,000–80,000
150,000–250,000
More than 500,000
I do not know
Ordered, from lowest to highest value; “I don’t know” fixed at bottom of the list
To the best of your knowledge, how many nuclear-weapons tests have been conducted since 1945, approximately? If you are not sure, give your best guess. Slider, open response 0–100,000
(2056)
“I don’t know” option offered
  1. Note: The correct responses for close-ended items are presented in italics in the “response options” column. The correct response for how many weapons there exist in a country are country specific; see Table A3 in the Additional file 1